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Fire elevator use and emergency measures

When a fire occurs in a high-rise building, the firefighters climb the fire by the fire elevator to save the time of reaching the fire layer, and reduce the physical exertion of the firefighters. In the fire fighting, the fire-fighting equipment can be delivered to the fire site in time. Therefore, fire elevators play an important role in fighting fires.
First, the scope of fire elevator installation “Building Design Fire Code” and “High-rise Civil Building Design Fire Code” clearly set the scope of the fire elevator, the following five conditions should be set up fire elevator:
1. A high-class civil public building;
2, ten-story and ten-story tower houses;
3. 12- and 12-story united houses and corridors;
4. Other second-class public buildings with a building height of more than 32 meters;
5. High-rise buildings and warehouses with elevators with a building height of more than 32 meters.
In the actual work, the construction engineering designers have designed the fire elevator according to the above requirements. Even if some engineering designers do not design the fire elevator according to the requirements of the “Specifications”, the auditors of the public security fire supervision authority will also comply with the “Specifications”. It has added a fire elevator.
Second, the function and use of fire elevators
(1) How to determine which elevator is a fire elevator during a fire A high-rise building has several elevators, and the fire elevator is basically used together with passengers and cargo elevators (used passengers or cargoes in general, and has fire-fighting functions when entering the fire-fighting state) ), how to determine which elevator is a fire elevator? Its main appearance features include the following aspects:
1. The fire elevator has an anteroom. The front room area of ​​the independent fire elevator is: the front room area of ​​the residential building is more than 4.5 square meters; the front room area of ​​the public building and the high-rise factory (library) building is more than 6 square meters. When the front room of the fire-fighting elevator and the smoke-proof stairwell are combined, the area is: the area of ​​the front room of the residential building is more than 6 square meters, and the area of ​​the front room of the public building and the high-rise building (the library) is more than 10 square meters.
2. The front room of the fire elevator is equipped with a Class B fire door or a fire shutter with a stagnation function.
3. There is a special fire telephone in the fire elevator car.
4. There is an operation button dedicated to the firefighters at the appropriate position on the first floor elevator door. The operation buttons are generally protected by a glass piece and are marked with a red “fire-only” in place.
5. When the normal power supply is cut off, the lighting in the non-fire elevator is not powered, and there is still illumination in the fire elevator.
6. The fire hydrant is equipped with an indoor fire hydrant in the front room of the fire elevator.
(II) Function of Fire Elevator When designing a high-rise building, according to the national regulations, the design of the fire elevator is designed as: fire elevator and passenger (or cargo) use elevator, when fire occurs, by fire control center In the case of instructions or the first-level firefighter-specific operation buttons to control the entry into the fire state, it should be achieved:
1. If the elevator is in the ascending direction, immediately stop at the nearest floor, do not open the door, then return to the first floor station and automatically open the elevator door.
2. If the elevator is in the downside, immediately close the door and return to the first floor station, and automatically open the elevator door.
3. If the elevator is already on the first floor, immediately open the elevator door to enter the fireman-only state.
4. The call button on each floor is lost, and the call is removed.
5. Restore the command button function in the car for the firefighters to operate.
6. The door closing button has no self-holding function.
(3) How to use the fire elevator
1. After the firefighters arrive at the fire elevator front room on the first floor (or use the front room), first use the hand axe or other hard object carried around to crush the glass piece that protects the fire elevator button, and then put the fire elevator button on. position. Due to different manufacturers, the appearance of the buttons is not the same. Some of them only have a small “red dot” on one end of the button. When operating, one end with a “red dot” can be pressed; some are provided. Two operation buttons, one is black, the above is marked with English “off”, the other is red, marked with English “on”, the red button labeled “on” is pressed to enter the fire state.
2. After the elevator enters the fire state, if the elevator is running, it will automatically drop to the first floor station and automatically open the door. If the elevator has already stopped at the first floor, it will automatically open.
3. After the firefighters enter the fire elevator car, press the door close button until the elevator door is closed. After the elevator starts, you can let go. Otherwise, if you release your hand during the door closing process, the door will open automatically and the elevator will not open. Will start. In some cases, pressing the close button is not enough. Press the button on the door at the same time as pressing the door button, and press the button on the floor you want to reach until the elevator starts.
Third, emergency measures in emergency situations
The fire scene is changeable, although the fire elevator is designed with dual-loop power supply and has automatic switching devices at the last-level distribution box. Then, what should the firefighters do in the elevator car once the elevator stops running?
(1) Rescue methods for external personnel
When the fire elevator is in normal operation, the indicator light used to indicate the operation of the elevator is illuminated in the front room of the elevator. Once the power is cut off, the indicator light will naturally go out. At this time, the fire commander should immediately use the following two measures to rescue the personnel in the elevator.
1. Send people to the fire elevator room located on the roof, and manually reduce the car in the elevator shaft to the first floor station. In order to ensure the safety of the passengers, the elevator manufacturer designed the automatic protection device during the power failure when designing the elevator. When the elevator loses power, in order to prevent the car from rising rapidly (due to the effect of the elevator weight), the mechanical The way the hoist’s axle is braked to death, which is often said to be “locked to death.” Rescue personnel (when conditions are available, preferably with the elevator maintenance personnel of the enterprise), after entering the elevator machine room, quickly find the tools that will be “locked to death” (this tool is generally yellow, placed near the hoist, one for each elevator room) After a total of two pieces, remove the protective cover located at the side of the hoisting machine. (The cover is fixed by two bolts, and the two bolts can be removed without using a tool.) After the protective cover is removed, first Use a hook-shaped tool in the special tool to insert the hook into the small hole on the lower side of the fixed protective cover, and then use the mast principle to press the connecting rod at the highest position. At this time, the elevator car is affected by the weight of the elevator. It will rise, this is what we do not want, how to make the car down to the first floor? The other of the two special tools is required. After the tool is inserted into the shaft coaxial with the hoist, one person uses a hook-shaped tool to press the link and the other person rotates clockwise. The car in the elevator shaft will descend until it reaches the first floor.
2. Send people to hit the elevator door layer by layer, determine the parking position of the elevator car, and then rescue. Due to the shielding effect of the elevator car and the elevator shaft, the radio station carried by the firefighters will lose its function. At this time, the commander can send a method of tapping the elevator doors on each floor, and supplemented by loud shouts to determine the elevator. The position of the car. After the position is determined, firstly the keyhole on the elevator shaft door is broken by hand axe or pliers. Then, after inserting with a flat screwdriver, pressing down, the door will automatically open because the hook of the closed elevator shaft door is unhooked; the elevator shaft After the door on the wall opens, then open the door on the car. Opening the door on the car is very simple. First, insert the hand axe into the door between the two doors. After the door can be inserted into the door, one can use the second door to the left and right. Move to pull the car door open and rescue the personnel inside the elevator. Because the door has a pulling force of 20 kg.
(2) Self-rescue method for personnel in the elevator car
Because the external rescue personnel need to implement the location of the roof elevator engine room during the rescue, and try to open the door of the elevator machine room, and then determine which is the hoist of the fire elevator, and need special tools, it takes a long time; when using the second In the method, it is first necessary to implement the position where the car is parked layer by layer, and then the two doors (the elevator shaft door and the car door) are opened by means of tools, so that the time required is not too short, therefore, the interior of the car The personnel should be self-help.
There are two ways to save yourself:
First, the person inside the elevator car first pulls the car door open (the method of opening the car door in the second method of rescue with external personnel), and then finds the upper left door of the right half of the elevator shaft wall. Department, when the hand touches the two small wheels arranged up and down, on the left side of the small wheel (about 30-40 mm from the small wheel below), there is a metal strip, and the metal strip is pushed up by hand. The door on the elevator shaft will automatically open, and the personnel can escape the elevator shaft and save themselves. Since the parking position of the elevator car in the elevator shaft is different, when the car door is opened, once there is no illumination, it should be carefully touched. After finding the metal strip in the upper left corner of the right door, push the metal bar up by hand to escape. .
Second, when the car door is opened and facing the reinforced concrete shaft wall, only the following measures are taken.
First, use the method of shoulders (that is, one person kneels and the other person puts his feet on the shoulders of the armpits) to climb up, destroy the top of the car with a hand-held axe, open the passage from the top of the car, enter the sedan The top of the car. Because the elevator manufacturer is in the production of the elevator, there is a manhole in the middle of the car at the farthest side of the car door, which is for the entrance and exit. This manhole is closed with a thin metal plate, which is easy to be damage.
Second, after entering the roof of the car, the person who goes up first pulls the person inside the car to the top of the car, and then looks for the door on the wall of the elevator shaft. When the right half door of the elevator shaft door is found, The goalkeeper moves to the upper left of the right door and touches the two wheels arranged up and down. Then the first method is used to open the door on the well wall and enter the front room of the fire elevator to escape.
Note the problem:
1. In the above self-rescue process, if the firefighters carry the lighting tools, it becomes very easy;
2. If the elevator car descends during the self-rescue process, whether the person is in the car or at the top of the car, all self-rescue measures must be stopped immediately, and the self-protection should be strengthened. After the elevator stops running, it will save itself.